The Amortization Phase: Making Plyometrics Work In Your Program
Shawn Myszka, CSCS,*D
Coaches, trainers, and athletes have always sought methods to increase power, rate of force development and reactive ability.
Plyometric training is a technique used to provide a link between strength in the weight room and speed on the field. In
fact, the use of plyometrics has run rampant through American weight rooms since its introduction into the United States
by Wilt in the mid 1970’s (13). Even though plyometrics have been around for decades, many coaches still remain misinformed
on how to properly incorporate plyometrics into their athlete’s training plans. Others fail to understand or apply the
scientific theories behind this unique methodology of training.
A couple problematic and confusing issues that exist when it comes to the understanding and application of plyometrics
include, but are not limited to:
1. A lack of clear and concise terminology in the literature used when it comes to discussing key theories related to plyometrics
2. During training application, science is often overlooked at the expense of added intensity, for example; body mechanics
are disregarded, prescribed loads typically require too long of ground contact time, too large a range of motion is utilized
during the exercises.
The purpose of this article is to add brief clarity to some of these issues. In addition, it will attempt to give direction towards
the keys related to the proper incorporation of plyometrics into one’s training programs. However, some key concerns
of upmost importance, such as specific exercise execution, program design variables, and program recommendations are
beyond the scope of this article. The reader is encouraged to refer to the full texts of the references for more information in
regards to these previously mentioned concerns.
Since its inception as a training modality, there has been much mystique revolving around the concept of plyometric training.
The use of plyometric training became popular in the United States in the 1970’s. However, plyometrics (more appropriately
termed jump or shock training) had been used for decades by Soviet coaches before it came to its current popularity
status (5, 12). However, prior to that point; this form of training was under much scrutiny due to a lack of a systematic
approach to its use. Due to the work done by a Soviet Scientist and Jump Coach, Yuri Verkhoshansky, and the success of the
Russian jumpers in the late 1960’s, coaches were given a glimpse of how plyometric methods, in a cyclic nature, could result
in extraordinary results in an athletic arena (12).
By definition, the word plyometrics literally means to ‘increase measurement’ (8, 9). However, the term plyometrics was
originally intended to mean ‘eccentric contraction’. A more practical definition is a quick and powerful concentric movement,
preceded by an active prestretch, or countermovement, that involves the use of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) (8).
Two models exist to help explain the increased concentric power production seen during the SSC: the mechanical and the
neurophysiological model. The mechanical model involves utilizing the elastic nature of the musculotendinous components,
namely the series elastic component (SEC), to facilitate an increase in concentric muscle action. The neurophysiological
model involves the potentiation of the concentric muscle action by use of the body’s natural stretch reflex. Both, then combine,
through an impulsive three phase cycle, to facilitate a maximal increase in force over a minimal amount of time. These
three phases include the eccentric phase, the amortization or transition phase, and the concentric phase.
The Amortization Phase: Making Plyometrics Work In Your Program 3
For the purpose of this article and to ensure carryover into a training
plan, it is important for us to revisit another theory that Verkhoshanky
hypothesized in regards to the development and execution of
plyometric exercises. Verkhoshanksy observed that his jumpers who
spent the shortest amount of time on the ground displayed the greatest
jumping performance. This led him to hypothesize that in order
for an athlete to withstand and overcome the high amounts of force
being placed on the body during the loading of the SSC, they needed
to have a high amount of eccentric strength. He also believed that by
placing an emphasis on eccentric training, this would not only create
greater dynamic strength, but also greater reactive ability (11, 12).
This reactive ability, a characteristic of speed-strength, is essentially the
body’s capacity to rapidly switch from an eccentric action to a concentric
one. Greater reactive ability allows one to more fully exploit
the potential energy attained in the eccentric stretch phases that are
common in sport movements.
Even though the SSC is well researched, some things still remain unclear about it, such as the degree to which each model
contributes to the overall increase of power production found within it. That being said, one thing about the SSC has been
clear from early research and remains true today; the amortization or transition of the SSC appears to be the most crucial in
allowing for greater power production in the concentric phase of plyometric movements (1, 2, 3, 6). This is where some of
the confusion exists between researchers and practitioners, alike. This confusion comes from the lack of clear terminology as
some refer to components of the amortization phase. Amortization refers to the extinction or deadening of something (9).
Thus, the amortization time and coupling time (in relation to an individual’s reactive ability) is the time from the end of
the eccentric phase to the initiation of the concentric muscle action (8). During this phase, several physiological events take
place that will determine the duration of the phase. In any event, the time delay must be kept short in duration because if a
concentric muscle action does not occur immediately following the eccentric phase, the stored energy from the SEC and the
potentiating ability of the stretch reflex will be negated. In addition, two other parameters on the eccentric portion of the
SSC are found to be important to the restitution of elastic energy and the potentiation effect if there is: 1) Too large of range
of motion/distance at a joint, or if 2) The eccentric phase takes too long, the stored energy dissipates and is expired as heat
As mentioned above, because the amortization and transition time is the most important phase of the SSC, proper and efficient
landings become paramount. Thus, pre-landing body position as well as maintaining posture, balance, and stability
after ground contact is key. An athlete should learn to land on the balls of the feet (front two-thirds of the foot) with the
ankle dorsiflexed and with slight flexion at all major joints involved upon landing. If the heels touch the ground during the
contact phase, the intensity or load to overcome is too great and should be reduced (1, 2, 3, 9). The shoulders, knees, and
toes should all be in alignment in this landing position. All of this in combination will allow for the quickest absorption
rate, lowest ground contact time, and a more rapid recovery of potential energy which will make a more powerful concentric
action more likely (1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 11). Figure 1 represents the proper landing position.
The Amortization Phase: Making Plyometrics Work In Your Program 4
Without proper landing technique, it is unlikely that the athlete will be able to efficiently stabilize the forces at the time of
ground contact and switch into a positive work position in the amortization time window. In addition, because of the extreme
amounts of forces the body is required to withstand in many plyometric exercises, having incorrect landing technique
may put the athlete at a much greater risk of mechanical inefficiency and/or potentially facilitate a so-called non-contact
injury (7). Basically, the quicker an athlete is able to switch from yielding (eccentric) work to overcoming (concentric) work,
the safer the movement becomes.
The amount of this coupling time (which is also referred to as amortization in this article) will make the difference as to how
the SSC of that movement is classified. In order to be of true plyometric nature and take advantage of the SSC, amortization
times should be of 250ms or less (5, 9, 10, 11). In addition, Bobbert has suggested different landing techniques in order to
not only keep amortization times low, but also to have specific carryover to sport. A good guideline based on his research
suggests that an athlete should execute most jumping movements (plyometrics) in a ‘bounce’/undampened fashion where an
athlete aims to land and immediately complete the push-off/take-off phase with little countermovement and ground contact
time (1, 2, 3).
By understanding and paying close attention to the amortization phase of the SSC one can efficiently utilize plyometrics in
any training program where qualities of power are a goal. The practitioner should look to understand the science of plyometric/
SSC movements in order to properly apply them into the training of athletes.
The Amortization Phase: Making Plyometrics Work In Your Program 5
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jumping. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc 19: 332 – 338. 1987.
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drop jumping. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc 19: 339 – 346, 1987.
4. Bosco, C, Komi, PV, Pulli, M, Pittera, C, and Montonev, H. Considerations of the training of the elastic potential of the human skeletal muscle.
Volleyball Technical Journal 6: 75 – 81, 1982.
5. Laputin, NP, and Oleshko, VG. Managing the training of weightlifters. (A Charniga, Trans.) Livonia, MI: Sportivny Press, 1982.
6. Lundin, Phil, and Berg, William. A review of plyometric training. NSCA Journal 13 (6): 22 – 30, 1991.
7. Plisk, Steven S. Speed, Agility, and Speed-Endurance Development. In: Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. R.W. Earle and T.R.
Baechle, eds. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 471 – 491, 2000.
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eds. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 427 – 470, 2000.
9. Radcliffe, James C, and Farentinos, Robert C. High Powered Plyometrics. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1999.
10. Schmidtbleicher, D. Training for power events. In: Strength and Power in Sports. P.V. Komi, editor.
Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 381 – 395, 1992.
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12. Verkhoshanksy, Y. Are depth jumps useful? Yessis Rev. Sov. Phys. Ed. Sports 4: 75 – 78, 1968.
13. Wilt, F. Plyometrics-What it is and how it works. Athletic Journal 55: 76, 89 – 90, 1975.